1. Acid – pH of less than 7
  2. Base – pH of more than 7
  3. pH – scale used to classify solutions
  4. Chemical change – result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties
  5. Chemical properties – be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
  6. Physical change – do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties
  7. Physical properties – can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.
  8. Precipitate – a solid substance formed when two solutions are chemically combined.
  9. Products – new substances formed in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
  10. Reactants – substances broken apart or combined in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation

 

8.P.1.2 – Vocabulary

Electron a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus of the atom
Neutron a subatomic particle with  no charge (neutral) found in the nucleus of the atom.
Protons a positive subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Valence Electron The number of electrons found in the outer shell.

These electrons can be gained, lost, or shared during a chemical reaction.

Periodic Table A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
Group/Family Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table.

18 Columns

Period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

7 Rows

Metal elements with similar properties found on the left side of the “staircase” on the periodic table
Metalloid elements with similar properties that create a “staircase” on the periodic table
Nonmetal elements with similar properties found on the right side of the “staircase” on the periodic table
Malleability A term used to describe a material that can be pounded into shapes.
Conductivity The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
Reactive The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.
Ductility A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.

 

8.P.1.1 Vocabulary

Chemical change - result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties
Chemical properties - be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
Compound -  pure substances that are composed of two or more types of elements that are chemically combined
Mixture -  physical combinations of two or more different substances that retain their own individual properties and are combined physically (mixed together)
Heterogeneous Mixture - is not uniform throughout, the component substances can be visibly distinguished
Homogeneous Mixture - is uniform throughout, the substances are evenly mixed and cannot be visibly distinguished
Physical change - do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties
Physical properties - can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.