Renewable/nonrenewable resources   8.P.2

Word Definition
Consequences something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions
Energy Transformation An energy transformation is the change of energy from one form to another.  There are many different forms of energy such as electrical, thermal, nuclear, mechanical, electromagnetic, sound, and chemical..
Solar Energy The energy the Earth receives from the sun, primarily as visible light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Depletion reduction in the number or quantity of something.
Renewable energy A source of energy that can be replaced as it is used or that cannot be used up
Nonrenewable energy A source of energy that is used much faster than it can be replaced
Conservation a careful preservation and protection of something; especially : planned management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect.

8.L.4 Evolution of Lifeforms

  • Adaptation:  a trait that increases the chances that an organism will survive and reproduce
  • Artificial selection:  the breeding of plants and animals with desired traits to attempt to produce offspring with these same traits.
  • Biological evolution:  the change over time of living organisms
  • Darwin:  was a naturalist who proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection.
  • Evolution:  the change in population of a species over time.
  • Extinction:  The evolutionary termination of a species caused by the failure to reproduce and the death of all remaining members of the species; the natural failure to adapt to environmental change.
  • Fossil:  evidence of past life preserved in rock.
  • Fossil record:  the complete body of fossils that shows how species and ecosystems change over time.
  • Fossilized:  the process of becoming a fossil
  • Index fossil:  a fossil found in a narrow time range but widely distributed around the earth; used to date rock layers
  • Mutation:  a random change to a gene that results in a new trait
  • Natural selection:  survival of the fittest organisms that are the best adapted to their environment and the ones that will live long enough to reproduce and pass on their favorable adaptations
  • Species:  the most specific classification of living things
  • Speciation:  the process of natural selection producing a new species out of existing species over thousands or millions of years.
  • Theory:  an explanation that ties together many hypotheses and observations.
  • Trace fossil:  a fossilized mark that is formed in soft sediment by the movement or actions of an animal.
  • Trilobite:  a marine organism that is an example of an index fossil

Essential Vocabulary –  8. E 2.1 Earth’s history

Absolute or Carbon Dating:  Process of determining the age of an object using the half-life (based on uranium) of one or more radioactive isotopes to find out how old something was.

Relative Dating:  How old an object is compared to another object

Index Fossils:  Fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during only one short period during Earth’s time scale. Example:  trilobite

Sedimentary Rock:   The type of rock that is made out of hardened layers.  Example: Grand Canyon

Law of Superposition:  The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it.  OR. In undisturbed layers of sedimentary rock the layer at the bottom is the oldest.

Continental Drift – a theory set forth in 1912 by Alfred Wegener, a geophysicist and meteorologist, that explained how continents shift position on Earth’s surface and why look-alike animal and plant fossils, and similar rock formations, are found on different continents

Evolution – any process of formation or growth; development

Fault – a fracture or fissure in the Earth’s crust in which there is movement on either side of the fracture; a place where sections of the crust of the Earth move relative to each other

Fossil – the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock

Relative Age – the geologic age of a fossil organism, rock, or geologic feature or event defined relative to other organisms, rocks, or features or events rather than in terms of years

Tectonic Plates – the two sub-layers of the earth’s crust (lithosphere) that move, float, and sometimes fracture and whose interaction causes continental drift, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and oceanic trenches

Pangaea – a hypothetical supercontinent that included all current land masses, believed to have been in existence before the continents broke apart during the Triassic and Jurassic Periods

Vocabulary 8.L.2.1

Word Definition
Biotechnology the manipulation of living things to make useful products
Genetic Engineering the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Ethics a set of moral principles, especially ones relating to or affirming a specified group, field, or form of conduct.
Microbial A microorganism, especially a bacterium that causes disease; a minute life form.
Genetic Modification a technology that changes the genetic material of a living organism
Microorganism a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, virus, or fungus
Cloning a technique that produces an organism that is an exact genetic  copy of another
Bioremediation the use of either naturally occurring or deliberately introduced microorganisms or other forms of life to consume and break down environmental pollutants, in order to clean up a polluted site
Selective Breeding the intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait.
Bioengineering the use of artificial tissues, organs, or organ components to replace damaged or absent parts of the body, such as artificial limbs and heart pacemakers.

8.L.1.1 Vocabulary

Vocabulary Definition
Microbiology The study of microscopic organisms
Virus A small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
  • Cocci (plural)
Coccus- a round or spherical shaped bacterium
  • Bacilli (plural)
Bacillus- a rod-shaped bacterium
  • Spirilla (plural)
Spirillum- a bacterium that has a spiral shape
Fungi Eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls, use spores to reproduce, and are heterotrophs that feed by absorbing food.
Parasite An organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
Disease a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
Unicellular made of only one cell
Host Cell An organism that provides a sources of energy or a suitable environment for a virus or for another organism to live
Antibiotics A chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person’s cells
Passive Immunity Immunity in which antibodies are given to a person rather than produced within the person’s own body
Active Immunity Immunity that occurs when a person’s own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen
Vaccine A substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific viruses, bacteria, or other disease-causing organisms

Vaccination-The process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity

Infectious disease A disease caused by the presence of a living thing in the body
Noninfectious disease A disease that is not caused by a pathogen
Carcinogens A substance or a factor in the environment that can cause cancer

 

8.L.1.2 Vocabulary

Vocabulary Definition
Epidemic An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area
Pandemic An epidemic that spreads over a large area, or throughout the world
Vectors An organism that transmits a disease.  The organism does not cause the disease itself, but spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another.  Example-Mosquitoes are vectors for the deadly disease Malaria.
Pathogens An organism that causes disease
Microbe (microorganism) A living thing that cannot be seen without a microscope
Antimicrobial An agent, like a drug, that is destructive to or prevents the growth of microorganisms

8.P.1.3 – Physical and Chemical Changes and Properties

1. Physical Changes A change in a substance that does not change its identity.
2. Properties A quality, attribute, or distinctive feature of anything, a characteristic
3. Boiling Point The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
4. Melting Point The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
5. Density The mass of a substance contained in a unit of volume.
6. Solubility A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
7. Solvent A substance that dissolves another substance
8. Solute The part of a solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by the solvent.
9. pH scale A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
10. Aciditiy Reacts with metals and carbonates
11. Basicity The extent to which a substance is basic.
12. Combustibility A reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in a fire.
13.  Reactivity The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.
14. Chemical changes A change is which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances.
15.  Reactions The action of two things acting together.
16. Chemical Bonds The force that holds tow atoms together.
17.  Precipitate A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.

8.P.1.4:  Law of Conservation of Mass

1. Law of Conservation of Mass Total amount of matter is neither created nor destroyed during any chemical or physical change.
2. Chemical Equation Uses chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words to summarize a reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

3. Closed System A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave.
4. Open System A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.
5. Products A substance that is formed as a result of a chemical reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

6.  Reactants A substance that enters into a chemical reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

7. Coefficient A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

8.  Subscript A specific number of atoms of the element found in the substance.

2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

9. Catalyst A material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy.

 

8.P.1.2:  Vocabulary

1. Periodic Table A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.
2. Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
3. Model A systematic description of an object or phenomenon that shares important characteristics with the object or phenomenon. Scientific models can be material, visual, mathematical, or computational and are often used in the construction of scientific theories.
4. Pattern The regular and repeated way in which something is done.

Patterns found on the periodic table would include:

5. Valence Electron The number of electrons found in the outer shell.

-These electrons can be gained, lost, or shared during a chemical reaction.

6. Isotope An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
7. Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
8. Atomic Mass The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
9. Vertical Column- Group/Family Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table.

18 Columns

10. Horizontal Row- Period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

7 Rows

11. Physical Property A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance.
12. Malleability A term used to describe a material that can be pounded into shapes.
13. ConductivityThe ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
14. Reactive The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.
15. Ductility A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.

8.P.1.1:  Vocabulary

Word Definition
1.Filtering A substance that allows only certain things to pass through.
2. Mixtures Two or more substances that are mixed together and not chemically combined.
3. Homogeneous A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture.
4. Heterogeneous A mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture.
5. Sifting Separate out from one thing to another
6. Evaporation The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state.
7. States of Matter One of the distinct forms that matter takes on.
8. Solid A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume.
9. Liquid A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume.
10. Gas A state of matter with no definite shape or volume
11. Molecule A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together.
12. Crystal Pattern Atoms, molecules are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating three-dimensional pattern.
13. Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space.
14. Atoms The basic particle from which all elements are made.
15. Proton A positively charged particle that is part of an atom’s nucleus
16. Electron A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom
17. Neutron A small particle in the nucleus of the atom, with no electrical charge.
18. Electron Cloud A sphere shaped region surrounding the nucleus where electrons move.
19. Nucleus The central core of an atom containing protons and usually neutrons.
20. Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
21. Density The mass of a substance contained in a unit of volume.
22. Volume The amount of space an object takes up.
23. Mass A measure of how much matter is in an object.
24. Compounds A pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.

 

Vocabulary 8.E.1.3

Word Definition
Bioindicators Organisms that indicate the health of a water ecosystem
Dissolved Oxygen oxygen found in water; the higher the amount of dissolved oxygen, the healthier a water system is for organisms
Nitrates groundwater contaminant that often times enters the groundwater through fertilizers, animal wastes, and sewage
pH (percent Hydrogen) A measure of the acidity or basicity of a substance; measured on a scale from 1-14 with the lower numbers representing the highest acidity
Phosphates inorganic compound created by the the removal or replacement of one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms in phosphoric acid; used in fertilizers and detergents and is a major cause of water pollution
Temperature the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance
Turbidity how clear or cloudy water is; water with a high turbidity is more difficult to see through
Macroinvertebrates any of various invertebrate macroorganisms (such as a crayfish or stonefly)


Vocabulary 8.E.1.4

Word Definition
Algal Bloom a rapid increase in phytoplankton as a result of excess nutrients in the water/can serve as a bioindicator of water quality
Coagulation the action or process of a liquid changing to a solid or semi-solid state
Disinfection the process of cleaning something, especially with a chemical, in order to destroy bacteria
Filtration any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass
Flocculation creating favorable conditions in water so that particles will stick together
Nonpoint source pollution pollution that occurs from unidentifiable sources
Point source pollution single, identifiable sources of pollution (In the case of water pollution, examples of point source pollutants might include a pipe, factory releasing pollutants into the water, etc.)
Sedimentation the process of settling or being deposited as a sediment
Stewardship taking care of something

 

8.E.1.1: Freshwater:  

Permeability: measure of how much water can flow through a substance
River basin: an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries much like a bathtub catches all of the water that falls within its sides
Watershed: an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.


8.E.1.2:  Oceans vocabulary

Aphotic Zone: the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight;formally defined as the depths beyond which less than 1% of sunlight penetrates.
Benthic Zone: the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers
Intertidal Zone: the area of the shore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e. the area between tide marks
Neritic Zone: the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200 meters in depth
Photic Zone: surface layer of the ocean that receives sunlight
Open Ocean: the sunlit top layer of the ocean beyond the continental shelves; the vast bulk of the sea, it covers over 360,000,000 square kilometers of the Earth’s surface and is referred to as the ‘marine desert’ because nutrients are lower here than in the shallow seas; life can be scarce
Upwelling: wind-driven process in which nutrient-rich, denser, colder water moves to the surface
Downwelling: the downward movement of fluid, especially in the sea, the atmosphere, or deep in the earth
Estuary: a place where freshwater meets up with salt water; nature’s nursery
Phytoplankton: microscopic marine producers/base of an aquatic food web
Hydrothermal vents: a fissure in a planet’s surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots

 

Vocabulary 8.E.1.1:  Water properties/Water Distribution

 

Word Definition
Adhesion When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick to other substances
Cohesion When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick together
Condensation When a gas to transform into a liquid as a result of cooling
Density Mass per unit volume; the amount of matter in a given amount of space.
Evaporation When a liquid to transforms into a gas as a result of heating
Hydrosphere All of the waters on Earth’s surface
Polarity Having a positive and negative end (pole) (i.e. Water is a polar molecule because it has a negatively charged side – the oxygen atom – and a positively charged side – the two hydrogen atoms)
Precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail
Salinity A measure of the amount of salt in a body of water
Solvent A liquid or a gas that dissolves another substance
Specific Heat How much heat energy it will take to raise or lower the temperature of an object
Surface Tension Atoms and molecules in the surface of a substance exhibit the property of cohesion
Water Cycle The journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.