- 8.P.1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes
- 8.P.1.2 Periodic Table
- 8.P.1.1 Elements, Compounds, Mixtures
- Acid – pH of less than 7
- Base – pH of more than 7
- pH – scale used to classify solutions
- Chemical change – result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties
- Chemical properties – be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
- Physical change – do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties
- Physical properties – can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.
- Precipitate – a solid substance formed when two solutions are chemically combined.
- Products – new substances formed in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
- Reactants – substances broken apart or combined in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
8.P.1.2 – Vocabulary
|Electron||a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus of the atom|
|Neutron||a subatomic particle with no charge (neutral) found in the nucleus of the atom.|
|Protons||a positive subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom|
|Valence Electron||The number of electrons found in the outer shell.
These electrons can be gained, lost, or shared during a chemical reaction.
|Periodic Table||A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.|
|Element||A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.|
|Atomic Number||The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.|
|Atomic Mass||The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.|
|Group/Family||Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table.
|Period||A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
|Metal||elements with similar properties found on the left side of the “staircase” on the periodic table|
|Metalloid||elements with similar properties that create a “staircase” on the periodic table|
|Nonmetal||elements with similar properties found on the right side of the “staircase” on the periodic table|
|Malleability||A term used to describe a material that can be pounded into shapes.|
|Conductivity||The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.|
|Reactive||The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.|
|Ductility||A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.|
8.P.1.1 Vocabulary Chemical change - result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties Chemical properties - be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition. Compound - pure substances that are composed of two or more types of elements that are chemically combined Mixture - physical combinations of two or more different substances that retain their own individual properties and are combined physically (mixed together) Heterogeneous Mixture - is not uniform throughout, the component substances can be visibly distinguished Homogeneous Mixture - is uniform throughout, the substances are evenly mixed and cannot be visibly distinguished Physical change - do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties Physical properties - can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.