Vocabulary 8.E.1.3

Word Definition
Bioindicators Organisms that indicate the health of a water ecosystem
Dissolved Oxygen oxygen found in water; the higher the amount of dissolved oxygen, the healthier a water system is for organisms
Nitrates groundwater contaminant that often times enters the groundwater through fertilizers, animal wastes, and sewage
pH (percent Hydrogen) A measure of the acidity or basicity of a substance; measured on a scale from 1-14 with the lower numbers representing the highest acidity
Phosphates inorganic compound created by the the removal or replacement of one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms in phosphoric acid; used in fertilizers and detergents and is a major cause of water pollution
Temperature the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance
Turbidity how clear or cloudy water is; water with a high turbidity is more difficult to see through
Macroinvertebrates any of various invertebrate macroorganisms (such as a crayfish or stonefly)

Vocabulary 8.E.1.4

Word Definition
Algal Bloom a rapid increase in phytoplankton as a result of excess nutrients in the water/can serve as a bioindicator of water quality
Coagulation the action or process of a liquid changing to a solid or semi-solid state
Disinfection the process of cleaning something, especially with a chemical, in order to destroy bacteria
Filtration any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass
Flocculation creating favorable conditions in water so that particles will stick together
Nonpoint source pollution pollution that occurs from unidentifiable sources
Point source pollution single, identifiable sources of pollution (In the case of water pollution, examples of point source pollutants might include a pipe, factory releasing pollutants into the water, etc.)
Sedimentation the process of settling or being deposited as a sediment
Stewardship taking care of something


8.E.1.1: Freshwater:  

Permeability: measure of how much water can flow through a substance
River basin: an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries much like a bathtub catches all of the water that falls within its sides
Watershed: an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.

8.E.1.2:  Oceans vocabulary

Aphotic Zone: the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight;formally defined as the depths beyond which less than 1% of sunlight penetrates.
Benthic Zone: the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers
Intertidal Zone: the area of the shore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e. the area between tide marks
Neritic Zone: the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200 meters in depth
Photic Zone: surface layer of the ocean that receives sunlight
Open Ocean: the sunlit top layer of the ocean beyond the continental shelves; the vast bulk of the sea, it covers over 360,000,000 square kilometers of the Earth’s surface and is referred to as the ‘marine desert’ because nutrients are lower here than in the shallow seas; life can be scarce
Upwelling: wind-driven process in which nutrient-rich, denser, colder water moves to the surface
Downwelling: the downward movement of fluid, especially in the sea, the atmosphere, or deep in the earth
Estuary: a place where freshwater meets up with salt water; nature’s nursery
Phytoplankton: microscopic marine producers/base of an aquatic food web
Hydrothermal vents: a fissure in a planet’s surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots


Vocabulary 8.E.1.1:  Water properties/Water Distribution


Word Definition
Adhesion When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick to other substances
Cohesion When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick together
Condensation When a gas to transform into a liquid as a result of cooling
Density Mass per unit volume; the amount of matter in a given amount of space.
Evaporation When a liquid to transforms into a gas as a result of heating
Hydrosphere All of the waters on Earth’s surface
Polarity Having a positive and negative end (pole) (i.e. Water is a polar molecule because it has a negatively charged side – the oxygen atom – and a positively charged side – the two hydrogen atoms)
Precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail
Salinity A measure of the amount of salt in a body of water
Solvent A liquid or a gas that dissolves another substance
Specific Heat How much heat energy it will take to raise or lower the temperature of an object
Surface Tension Atoms and molecules in the surface of a substance exhibit the property of cohesion
Water Cycle The journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.