1. Biotechnology: the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.; the manipulation of living things to make useful products
  2. Ethics: a set of moral principles, especially ones relating to or affirming a specified group, field, or form of conduct.
  3. Microbial: A microorganism, especially a bacterium that causes disease; a minute life form.
  4. Microorganism: a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, virus, or fungus
  5. Cloning: a technique that produces an organism that is an exact genetic  copy of another
  6. Selective Breeding: the intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait.
  7. Stem Cells: a simple cell in the body that is able to develop into any one of various kinds of cells(such as blood cells, skin cells, etc.)
  8. Biofuels:  A type of energy derived from renewable plant and animal materials or organic matter.
  9. Bioremediation:  introduced microorganisms that break down environmental pollutants, in order to clean up a polluted site
  10. Genetic Engineering:  DNA manipulation of cells or organisms- Genes are added, deleted or changed.
  11. Genetic Modification:  allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another and also between non-related species. (GMO)
  12. Mutagen:  a toxic chemical that causes damage to an organism’s DNA.
  13. Mutation:  a random change to a gene that results in a new trait.

 

8.L.1.2 Epidemics and Pandemics Vocabulary

  1. Epidemic– An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area
  2. Pandemic– An epidemic that spreads over a large area, or throughout the world
  3. Vector– An organism that transmits a disease.  The organism does not cause the disease itself, but spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another.  Example-Mosquitoes are vectors for the deadly disease Malaria. Vectors are not infected with the pathogen but merely move it from one organism to another.
  4. Carrier– An organism that is infected with a pathogen and can spread it to other organisms but does not show any outward signs of the infection.
  5. Pathogen– An organism that causes disease
  6. Microbe (microorganism)– A living thing that cannot be seen without a microscope
  7. Antimicrobial– An agent, like a drug, that is destructive to or prevents the growth of microorganisms

 

  1. Microbiology– The study of microscopic organisms
  2. Virus– A small, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.
  3. Bacteria– Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
  4. Cocci (plural) Coccus– a round or spherical shaped bacterium
  5. Bacilli (plural) Bacillus– a rod-shaped bacterium
  6. Spirilla (plural) Spirillum– a bacterium that has a spiral shape
  7. Fungi– Eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls, use spores to reproduce, and are heterotrophs that feed by absorbing food.
  8. Parasite– An organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
  9. Disease– a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
  10. Antibiotics– A chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person’s cells
  11. Passive Immunity– Immunity in which antibodies are given to a person rather than produced within the person’s own body
  12. Active Immunity– Immunity that occurs when a person’s own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen
  13. Vaccine– A substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific viruses, bacteria, or other disease-causing organisms
  14. Vaccination– The process by which harmless antigens are deliberately introduced into a person’s body to produce active immunity
  15. Infectious disease– A disease caused by the presence of a living thing in the body
  16. Noninfectious disease– A disease that is not caused by a pathogen

 

 

 

8.E.1.4: Water Stewardship

  1. Algal Bloom– a rapid increase in phytoplankton as a result of excess nutrients in the water/can serve as a bioindicator of water quality
    2. Coagulation– the action or process of a liquid changing to a solid or semi-solid state
  2. Disinfection– the process of cleaning something, especially with a chemical, in order to destroy bacteria
    4. Filtration– any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass
    5. Flocculation– creating favorable conditions in water so that particles will stick together
    6. Nonpoint source pollution– pollution that occurs from unidentifiable sources
    7. Point source pollution– single, identifiable sources of pollution (In the case of water pollution, examples of point source pollutants might include a pipe, factory releasing pollutants into the water, etc.)
    8. Sedimentation– the process of settling or being deposited as a sediment
    9. Stewardship– taking care of something

 

8.E.1.3: Water Quality
Bioindicators– Organisms that indicate the health of a water ecosystem
Dissolved Oxygen– oxygen found in water; the higher the amount of dissolved oxygen, the healthier a water system is for organisms
Nitrates– groundwater contaminant that often times enters the groundwater through fertilizers, animal wastes, and sewage
pH (percent Hydrogen)– A measure of the acidity or basicity of a substance; measured on a scale from 1-14 with the lower numbers representing the highest acidity
Phosphates– inorganic compound created by the the removal or replacement of one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms in phosphoric acid; used in fertilizers and detergents and is a major cause of water pollution
Temperature– the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance
Turbidity– how clear or cloudy water is; water with a high turbidity is more difficult to see through
Macro-invertebrates– any of various invertebrate macro-organisms (such as a crayfish or stonefly)

 

Freshwater and Oceans Vocabulary

8.E.1.1: Freshwater

  1. Permeability– measure of how much water can flow through a substance
  2. River basin– an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries much like a bathtub catches all of the water that falls within its sides
    8.E.1.2: Oceans
    3. Aphotic Zone– the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight;formally defined as the depths beyond which less than 1% of sunlight penetrates.
    4. Benthic Zone– the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers
    5. Intertidal Zone– the area of the shore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e. the area between tide marks
    6. Neritic Zone– the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately 200 meters in depth
    7. Photic Zone– surface layer of the ocean that receives sunlight
    8. Open Ocean– the sunlit top layer of the ocean beyond the continental shelves; the vast bulk of the sea, it covers over 360,000,000 square kilometers of the Earth’s surface and is referred to as the ‘marine desert’ because nutrients are lower here than in the shallow seas; life can be scarce
    9. Upwelling– wind-driven process in which nutrient-rich, denser, colder water moves to the surface
    10. Downwelling– the downward movement of fluid, especially in the sea, the atmosphere, or deep in the earth
    11. Estuary– a place where freshwater meets up with salt water; nature’s nursery
    12. Phytoplankton– microscopic marine producers/base of an aquatic food web
    13. Hydrothermal vents– a fissure in a planet’s surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots

 

8.E.1.1:  Water properties/Water Distribution

  1. Adhesion– When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick to other substances
  2. Cohesion– When the atoms or molecules of a substance stick together
  3. Condensation– When a gas to transform into a liquid as a result of cooling
  4. Density– Mass per unit volume; the amount of matter in a given amount of space.
  5. Evaporation– When a liquid to transforms into a gas as a result of heating
  6. Hydrosphere– All of the waters on and under Earth’s surface
  7. Polarity– Having a positive and negative end (pole) (i.e. Water is a polar molecule because it has a negatively charged side – the oxygen atom – and a positively charged side – the two hydrogen atoms)
  8. Precipitation– Rain, snow, sleet, hail
  9. Salinity– A measure of the amount of salt in a body of water
  10. Solvent– A liquid or a gas that dissolves another substance
  11. Specific Heat– How much heat energy it will take to raise or lower the temperature of an object. Water has a high specific heat meaning it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water.
  12. Surface Tension– Atoms and molecules in the surface of a substance exhibit the property of

cohesion

Water Cycle– The journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.

 

8.P.1.4 Vocabulary

  1. Law of conservation of mass – The amount of matter does not change during a chemical reaction, only that the atoms are rearranged to form new substances. This is evidenced in a balanced chemical equation.
  2. Products – new substances formed in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
  3. Reactants – substances broken apart or combined in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
  4. Chemical Equation– Uses chemical formulas and other symbols instead of words to summarize a reaction.  2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
  5. Closed System– A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave.
  6. Open System– A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.
  7. Coefficient– A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.  2H2 + O22H2O
  8. Subscript– A specific number of atoms of the element found in each molecule of a substance. 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

 

Common Chemical Equations (flashcards only)

Substance Chemical Equation
Water H2O
Carbon dioxide CO2
Sucrose C12H22O11
Table salt NaCl
Oxygen O2
Household bleach NaClO
Hydrochloric acid HCl
Ammonia NH3
Baking Soda NaHCO3
Vinegar HC2H3O2, 5% solution

 

  1. Acid – pH of less than 7
  2. Base – pH of more than 7
  3. pH – scale used to classify solutions
  4. Chemical change – result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties
  5. Chemical properties – be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
  6. Physical change – do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties
  7. Physical properties – can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.
  8. Precipitate – a solid substance formed when two solutions are chemically combined.
  9. Products – new substances formed in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation.
  10. Reactants – substances broken apart or combined in a chemical reaction and that they are located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation

 

8.P.1.2 – Vocabulary

Electron a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus of the atom
Neutron a subatomic particle with  no charge (neutral) found in the nucleus of the atom.
Protons a positive subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Valence Electron The number of electrons found in the outer shell.

These electrons can be gained, lost, or shared during a chemical reaction.

Periodic Table A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
Group/Family Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table.

18 Columns

Period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

7 Rows

Metal elements with similar properties found on the left side of the “staircase” on the periodic table
Metalloid elements with similar properties that create a “staircase” on the periodic table
Nonmetal elements with similar properties found on the right side of the “staircase” on the periodic table
Malleability A term used to describe a material that can be pounded into shapes.
Conductivity The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
Reactive The ease and speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds.
Ductility A term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire.

 

8.P.1.1 Vocabulary

Chemical change - result in the formation of one or more new substances with new chemical and physical properties
Chemical properties - be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
Compound -  pure substances that are composed of two or more types of elements that are chemically combined
Mixture -  physical combinations of two or more different substances that retain their own individual properties and are combined physically (mixed together)
Heterogeneous Mixture - is not uniform throughout, the component substances can be visibly distinguished
Homogeneous Mixture - is uniform throughout, the substances are evenly mixed and cannot be visibly distinguished
Physical change - do not change the composition of a substance, only the physical properties
Physical properties - can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.